Data Link Layer

Introduction The data link layer constitutes the second layer of the hierarchical OSI Model. Features Data Link Layer performs their functions in LAN mainly. The Data Link layer together with physical layer provide a data link connection for reliable transfer of data bits over an imperfect physical connection, between two Read more…

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Physical Layer

Introduction The physical layer is the lowest layer of the OSI model. Features Functions This layer transmits/receives the unstructured raw bit stream over/from a physical medium such as cables. This layer describes the electrical/optical, mechanical and functional interfaces of the physical medium This layer carries the signals for all the Read more…

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Unix/Linux Commands

Important Key Combination  CTRL+C – To halt the current command. CTRL+D – To save the written file contents/generate end-of-file character/Logout the current session, similar to exit. CTRL+G – To resume flow of long output of the screen stopped by CRTL+S, so that screen passes fastly. CTRL+Q -To restart the output Read more…

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