E-Market and SCM with CRM



  • E-Market stands for “Electronic Market”.
  • E-Market is also known as the “Online Market”.


  • E-markets are online markets place where goods, services, or financial assets are bought and sold electronically through the Internet(mostly) or other computer networks.

Type of E-Market

  •  E-markets have become increasingly prominent with the growth of e-commerce and digital technologies.
  • E-markets offer convenience, accessibility, and a broader reach for buyers and sellers. They have transformed various industries and created new opportunities for businesses and consumers alike.
  • The growth of e-markets continues to be influenced by advances in technology, mobile devices, secure payment systems, and global connectivity.
  • Some key aspects and types of e-markets are:-
    • E-commerce Marketplaces:
      • E-commerce marketplaces like Amazon, eBay, and Alibaba serve as platforms where multiple sellers can list their products for sale, and buyers can browse and purchase from a wide range of offerings.
    • B2B E-Markets:
      • Business-to-business (B2B) e-markets are digital platforms where businesses buy and sell products or services to other businesses. These platforms cater to the specific needs of enterprises.
    • Online Auctions:
      • Online auction platforms allow sellers to list items for bidding, and buyers can place bids to purchase those items. eBay is a well-known example of an online auction e-market.
    • Online Stock Exchanges:
      • Stock exchanges like the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India, the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), and the NASDAQ of America have digital counterparts where stocks and other financial instruments are traded electronically.
    • Cryptocurrency Exchanges:
      • Cryptocurrency exchanges like Binance and Coinbase facilitate the trading of digital currencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.
    • Real Estate Marketplaces:
      • Online real estate marketplaces like Zillow and Realtor.com allow users to search for and purchase real estate properties.
    • Online Classifieds:
      • Classified advertising websites like Craigslist provide a platform for buying and selling various items, services, and job listings.
    • Digital Content Markets:
      • Platforms like Apple’s App Store and Google Play enable users to purchase and download digital content such as apps, games, music, and e-books.
    • Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Marketplaces:
      • P2P e-markets connect individuals who want to buy and sell directly with one another. Examples include peer-to-peer lending platforms and P2P car-sharing services.
    • Commodity Markets:
      • Some commodity markets, such as those for precious metals and agricultural products, have electronic trading platforms where commodities are bought and sold globally.
    • Online Travel and Booking:
      • E-markets for travel and booking services, such as Expedia and Booking.com, allow users to book flights, accommodations, and travel-related services.
    • Art and Collectibles Markets:
      • Online platforms like Sotheby’s and Christie’s auction artwork and collectibles to a global audience.
    • Subscription Services:
      • Subscription e-markets offer recurring services or products, such as streaming video, music, and software subscriptions.
    • Crowdfunding Platforms:
      • Crowdfunding platforms like Kickstarter and Indiegogo allow entrepreneurs and creators to raise funds for their projects or products.
    • Niche and Specialty Markets:
      • E-markets can cater to specific niches, such as handmade crafts on Etsy or gourmet food on Goldbelly.
    • Global Trade and Import/Export:
      • Online platforms and marketplaces facilitate global trade by connecting buyers and sellers across borders.

Supply Chain Management (SCM)

  • Supply chain management (SCM) is the end-to-end process of planning, implementing, and controlling the flow of goods, services, information, and finances as they move from the supplier to the manufacturer, wholesaler, retailer, and ultimately to the end consumer.
  • The primary objective of supply chain management is to optimize the supply chain’s efficiency, reduce costs, and improve overall customer satisfaction.
  • Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the flow of goods, services, information, and finances as they move from the point of origin to the point of consumption.
  • Effective supply chain management ensures the smooth and efficient operation of various business processes and is critical for the success of organizations in virtually every industry.
  • Effective supply chain management aims to enhance efficiency, reduce costs, improve product quality, meet customer demand, and increase overall competitiveness.
  • It often involves close collaboration with suppliers, logistics partners, and other stakeholders to ensure the seamless flow of goods and services.
  • The advent of digital technologies and data-driven approaches has led to significant advancements in supply chain management, providing greater visibility, real-time tracking, and predictive analytics to optimize operations.
  • The major activities & functions of supply chain management are:-
  1. Planning:
    • Demand Planning: Forecasting and estimating future demand for products and services.
    • Supply Planning: Determining how to fulfill the forecasted demand, including procurement, production, and inventory management.
  2. Sourcing:
    • Supplier Selection: Identifying, evaluating, and selecting suppliers and establishing relationships.
    • Procurement: Acquiring the necessary raw materials, components, or finished products from chosen suppliers.
  3. Manufacturing and Production:

    • Manufacturing Processes: Managing production operations, optimizing efficiency, and ensuring product quality.
    • Quality Control: Implementing quality assurance and control measures to meet product standards.
  4. Logistics, Warehousing and Distribution:

    • Logistics: Logistics involves planning and executing the movement of goods, services, and information across the supply chain. This may include transportation, order fulfillment, and tracking of shipments.
    • Warehousing: Managing storage facilities and inventory, optimizing space, and facilitating distribution.
    • Transportation: Planning and managing the movement of goods from suppliers to distribution centers and customers.
    • Order Fulfillment: Processing and delivering customer orders, including picking, packing, and shipping.
  5. Inventory Management:

    • Inventory Optimization: Balancing the cost of holding inventory with the risk of stockouts.
    • Safety Stock Management: Maintaining buffer stock to prevent shortages caused by variability in demand or supply.
  6. Demand Management:

    • Order Management: Managing customer orders, from order receipt to delivery.
    • Customer Relationship Management (CRM): Building and maintaining strong customer relationships.
  7. Technology and Information Systems:

    • Supply Chain Software: Utilizing software and technologies to enhance supply chain visibility, communication, and data analysis.
    • Blockchain and IoT: Employing technologies like blockchain and the Internet of Things (IoT) for traceability and supply chain transparency.
  8. Supplier & Vendor Management:

    • Supplier Portals: Allowing suppliers to access and update information related to orders, inventory, and demand.
    • Maintaining strong relationships with suppliers and vendors is essential. This includes communication, performance evaluation, and collaboration on improvements.
  9. Sustainability and Ethics:

    • Integrating sustainability and ethical considerations into supply chain operations, such as sourcing materials responsibly and reducing environmental impact.

    10. Risk Management:

    • Supply Chain Risk Assessment: Identifying and mitigating risks, such as disruptions, natural disasters, or geopolitical issues.
    • Compliance: Ensuring that supply chain activities meet regulatory and compliance requirements.

   11. Performance Metrics and Analytics:

    • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): Measuring supply chain performance using KPIs and metrics.
    • Data Analytics: Using data analysis to identify trends, optimize processes, and make data-driven decisions.

  12. Cost Management:

    • Managing supply chain costs, including transportation, warehousing, and inventory costs.

13. Customer Service and Support:

    • Customer Support: Addressing customer inquiries and issues related to orders and deliveries.
    • After-Sales Service: Providing support and maintenance services after product delivery.

14. Quality Control:

    • Ensuring the quality of products at every stage of the supply chain is crucial to meeting customer expectations and minimizing defects or returns.

15. Collaboration and Communication:

    • Effective communication and collaboration between supply chain partners, including suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and retailers, are essential for a smoothly functioning supply chain.

16. Continuous Improvement:

    • SCM involves ongoing evaluation, analysis, and optimization of processes to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance customer satisfaction.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

  • CRM stands for Customer Relationship Management,
  • CRM refers to a set of practices, strategies, technologies, and tools that businesses use to manage and analyze customer interactions and data throughout the customer lifecycle.
  • The primary goal of CRM is to build and maintain strong customer relationships and enhance customer satisfaction, which can lead to increased customer loyalty and, ultimately, improved business performance.
  • CRM plays a vital role in enhancing customer experiences, streamlining business operations, and boosting sales and customer retention.
  • CRM is a versatile tool used by a wide range of industries and businesses of all sizes to manage customer relationships effectively.
  • Effective CRM implementation can result in improved customer satisfaction, higher customer retention, increased sales, and enhanced operational efficiency.
  • CRM helps businesses better understand their customers, engage with them in meaningful ways, and deliver personalized experiences to build and maintain strong, long-lasting relationships.
  • Some key components of CRM are:-
  1. Customer Data Management: CRM systems collect, store, and manage customer information, including contact details, purchase history, preferences, and interactions across various touchpoints (e.g., email, phone, social media).

  2. Sales Management: CRM systems provide tools for managing sales leads, opportunities, and the sales pipeline. Sales teams can use CRM to track prospects, forecast revenue, and prioritize sales activities.

  3. Marketing Automation: CRM systems often integrate with marketing automation tools to manage marketing campaigns, track leads, and measure campaign effectiveness. This helps businesses target the right audience with personalized marketing messages.

  4. Customer Support and Service: CRM systems help organizations manage customer support requests, track service interactions, and ensure timely issue resolution. This improves customer satisfaction and streamlines support operations.

  5. Analytics and Reporting: CRM systems offer analytics and reporting features that allow businesses to gain insights into customer behavior, sales performance, and customer service metrics. This data can inform decision-making and strategic planning.

  6. Automation: CRM systems automate repetitive tasks and workflows, such as lead scoring, data entry, and follow-up reminders, to improve operational efficiency and free up employees’ time for more strategic activities.

  7. Lead Management: CRM software assists in capturing, nurturing, and converting leads into customers. It provides a systematic approach to tracking leads’ progress through the sales funnel.

  8. Cross-Selling and Upselling: CRM systems can identify opportunities for cross-selling and upselling to existing customers by analyzing their purchase history and preferences.

  9. Customer Segmentation: CRM tools enable businesses to segment their customer base based on various criteria, allowing for more targeted marketing and communication.

  10. Multi-Channel Communication: CRM systems facilitate communication across various channels, including email, phone, social media, and live chat, providing a unified view of customer interactions.

  11. Mobile Accessibility: Many CRM systems offer mobile apps or responsive web interfaces, allowing salespeople and customer service agents to access customer information and respond to inquiries while on the go.

  12. Integration: CRM systems can integrate with other business applications, such as email marketing, e-commerce platforms, and ERP systems, to provide a holistic view of customer interactions and business processes.

  13. Scalability: CRM solutions are scalable to accommodate the growth and changing needs of businesses, from small startups to large enterprises.

  14. Cloud-Based CRM: Cloud-based CRM systems offer flexibility, accessibility, and reduced IT infrastructure costs, making them a popular choice for many businesses.

  15. Customization: CRM software can often be customized to align with a business’s specific processes, industry, and customer requirements.

  16. Data Security: Protecting customer data is a critical aspect of CRM. Systems have security measures to ensure the confidentiality and integrity of customer information.

  17. Mobile Access: CRM solutions offer mobile apps and responsive interfaces, enabling sales and support teams to access CRM data and functionalities while on the go.

  18. Feedback and Surveys: CRM systems can collect customer feedback through surveys and evaluations, providing insights for service improvements.
  19. Social CRM: Social CRM involves monitoring and engaging with customers on social media platforms to gain insights and provide support.
  20. Customer Engagement: CRM tools help businesses engage with customers across various touchpoints, such as email, social media, and live chat, to provide personalized experiences.

The Value Chain Model

  • The Value Chain Model is the process that businesses use to create and deliver products and services to customers through online platforms.
  • The Value Chain Model outlines the activities or steps involved in creating to delivering products or services in a business.
  • The Value Chain Model includes everything from planning and designing products to manufacturing and packaging them to storing and shipping them to processing payments and returns.
  • In other words, a value chain is a model that includes every step a company goes through i.e., from the initial planning through delivery to the customer, to create goods or services.
  • The Value Chain Model is applicable and evolves to encompass the digital aspects of business operations.
  • The e-commerce value chain model provides a structured framework for analyzing, optimizing, and innovating digital operations, enabling businesses to create value for customers while maintaining a competitive edge in the online marketplace.

Components of the E-commerce Value Chain

  • Primary Activities:
    • Inbound Logistics:
      • This includes management of online inventory, receiving goods from suppliers, and handling digital assets (products, data, content).
    • Operations:
      • The core activities involved in the Value Chain are managing the website/platform, order processing, product catalog management, and content creation.
    • Outbound Logistics:
      • This includes and manages packaging, shipping, and delivery logistics, including handling returns and managing the last-mile delivery process.
    • Marketing and Sales:
      • This includes and manages digital marketing efforts, customer acquisition strategies, SEO, PPC advertising, social media marketing, and sales activities on the e-commerce platform.
    • Services:
      • This includes and manages customer support, post-sale services, handling inquiries, addressing issues, and managing feedback or reviews.
  • Support Activities:
    • Infrastructure:
      • Digital infrastructure includes web hosting, server maintenance, and other related technologies for the e-commerce platform.
    • Human Resource Management:
      • This includes workforce management, training for customer services, and technical support related to the e-commerce platform.
    • Technology Development:
      • This includes continuous development, maintenance, and enhancement of the e-commerce website, mobile app, or digital interfaces.
    • Procurement:
      • This includes sourcing of digital tools, software, and technology required for e-commerce operations, including partnerships with third-party service providers.
Advantages of E-Commerce Value Chain
  • Digital Transformation:
    • The Value Chain concept emphasizes the integration of technology across all aspects of the value chain, from online storefronts to back-end systems.
  • Customer Experience Focus:
    • The Value Chain prioritizes the seamless user experience, ease of navigation, mobile responsiveness, and personalized customer interactions.
  • Data-driven Insights:
    • The concept of Value Chain helps to utilize analytics and data to understand customer behavior, optimize marketing strategies, and improve operations.
  • Supply Chain Efficiency:
    • The Value Chain optimizes supply chain and logistics, including inventory management, order fulfillment, and shipping efficiency.
  • Agility and Adaptability:
    • E-commerce businesses need to be agile/quick to respond quickly to market changes, customer demands, and technological advancements using Value Chain study.
  • Competitive Advantage:
    • The concept of Value Chain helps in understanding and optimizing each e-commerce activity can lead to competitive advantages in cost, efficiency, or customer experience.
  • Digital Innovation:
    • By Studying the Value Chain we can Identify areas for technological innovation and improvements to enhance online operations and customer engagement.
  • Operational Efficiency:
    • The use of the Value Chain concept Streamlines processes, reducing bottlenecks, and enhancing overall efficiency in e-commerce operations.

Categories: E-Commerce


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