Introduction of Filling Techniques in Graphics
 The fundamental principle of filling techniques is to determine the pixels within a given shape or region that need to be colored or filled.
Definition of Filling Techniques in Graphics
 Filling techniques are used in computer graphics to fill the interior of regions, shapes, or bounded areas with desired colors or patterns.
Features of Filling Techniques in Graphics
The characteristics of filling techniques in computer graphics can vary depending on the specific algorithm or method used. However, some common characteristics of filling techniques are:

Speed: Filling techniques can be designed to be efficient and fast, allowing for realtime rendering of graphics.

Memory Usage: Filling techniques can require significant memory to store intermediate results or to generate complex patterns or textures.

Accuracy: Filling techniques can produce accurate results without distortion or blurring of edges or boundaries.

Flexibility: Filling techniques can be designed to be flexible, allowing for the creation of various patterns, textures, or color gradients.

Complexity: Some filling techniques may be more complex and require more computational resources than others, depending on the type of pattern or texture being generated.

Limitations: Filling techniques may have limitations in terms of the types of shapes or regions they can fill, or the range of colors and patterns they can generate.

Optimization: Some filling techniques can be optimized for certain types of graphics hardware or architectures, improving efficiency and reducing computational overhead.
Algorithms for Filling Techniques
 Each filling technique has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of technique depends on the specific requirements of the application.
 The choice of a filling technique depends on the specific application and requirements, such as the size and complexity of the area to be filled, the desired speed and efficiency of the algorithm, and the available computational resources.
 Some common algorithms or techniques used for filling shapes in computer graphics are:

Scanline Fill Algorithm:
 This algorithm works by scanning an image line by line and filling in the pixels between two edges with a color or pattern.
 This algorithm works by dividing the shape into horizontal lines and filling each line with the desired color.
 It is efficient and can be used for filling complex shapes.

The algorithm uses an edge table to identify the edges of the shape and a scanline table to keep track of the active edges. As the scanline passes over each edge, the algorithm fills in the pixels between the edges.

Boundary Fill Algorithm:

This algorithm works by starting at a boundary pixel from a point inside the shape and recursively coloring adjacent pixels with a specified color that is connected to the boundary pixel until the entire area is filled.

The algorithm uses a boundary color to define the edges of the shape and a fill color to color the interior.


Flood Fill Algorithm:

This algorithm works by filling a contiguous area of pixels with a given color.

The algorithm starts from a given point called a seed pixel and fills all connected/adjacent pixels with a specified color.

The algorithm continues until all pixels of the same color are filled.
 It is easy to implement and is helpful for filling small areas.


Texture Mapping:

Texture mapping is a technique used to apply a texture or image onto a shape.

The texture is mapped onto the surface of the shape using coordinates that match the shape’s geometry.
 Texture mapping involves mapping a texture onto a 3D object or 2D shape.
 It is commonly used for creating realisticlooking surfaces in 3D graphics.


Seed Fill Algorithm:
 The seed fill algorithm is similar to the flood fill algorithm but requires the user to specify a starting point within the area to be filled.

Gradient Fill:

Gradient fill involves filling a region with a gradient color that changes gradually from one color to another, creating a smooth transition.

Use/Application of Filling Techniques in Graphics
 The primary purpose of filling techniques is to enhance the visual quality of a graphic by adding color and texture to the shapes or regions.
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