**Type of Operators**

Java provides various types of operators(very much similar to C programming) that can be used to perform different operations on variables and values. These are:-

##### Arithmetic Operators

- They are divided into two categories – Binary Arithmetic Operators and Unary Arithmetic Operators.
**Binary Arithmetic Operators –**- Binary operators are applied only on two operands.
- Binary operators are – +, -, *, /, %

**Unary Arithmetic Operators –**- Unary operators are applied only to one operand.
- Unary operators are – ++, – –
- They are of two types – Increment unary operator and Decrement unary operator.
- Increment Unary Operator is further divided into two parts – Pre Increment Unary Operator(++i) and Post Increment Unary Operator(i++).
- The Decrement Unary operator is further divided into two parts – Pre decrement Unary Operator(–i) and Post Increment Unary Operator(i–).

##### Assignment Operators

- Denoted by = symbol.
- It is used to assign value to the variables. For example int A = 12; int A = B; int C= A+B; char ch=’m’;
- Assignment operators can also be represented in the form of shorthand form/Compound assignment operators, therefore, they are represented as –

##### Relational/Comparision Operators

- Equal to (==): Checks if two operands are equal.
- Not equal to (!=): Checks if two operands are not equal.
- Greater than (>): Checks if the left operand is greater than the right.
- Less than (<): Checks if the left operand is less than the right.
- Greater than or equal to (>=): Checks if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right.
- Less than or equal to (<=): Checks if the left operand is less than or equal to the right.

##### Conditional/Ternary Operators

- Ternary operator (condition ? expression1: expression2): Evaluates a condition and returns one of two expressions based on the result of the condition.

##### Logical/Boolean Operators

- Logical AND (&&): Returns true if both operands are true.
- Logical OR (||): Returns true if either operand is true.
- Logical NOT (!): Inverts the logical state of an operand.

##### Bitwise Operators

- Bitwise AND (&): Performs a bitwise AND operation.
- Bitwise OR (|): Performs a bitwise OR operation.
- Bitwise XOR (^): Performs a bitwise XOR (exclusive OR) operation.
- Bitwise NOT (~): Inverts the bits of an operand.
- Left shift (<<): Shifts the bits of the left operand to the left.
- Right shift (>>): Shifts the bits of the left operand to the right.
- Unsigned right shift (>>>): Shifts the bits of the left operand to the right, filling the leftmost bits with zeros.

##### Class & Object Operators

Symbol |
Name |
Description |

instance of | Class Test Operator | Checks if an object is an instance of a specific class or a subclass. The first operand must be an object reference. For example ‘A instance of B’, Returns true if A is an instance of B. Otherwise, it returns false. |

new | Class Instantiation | Creates a new object. For example: new A, in this A is either a call to a constructor or an array specification. |

“.” | Class Member Access | It accesses a method or field of a class or object. For example, A.B is used for ‘field access for object A’, and A.B() is used for ‘method access for object A’ |

() | Method Invocation | For example, A(parameters), Declares or calls the method named A with the specified parameters. |

(type) | Object Cast | (type) A, in this example () operator Cost (convert) A to a specific type. An exception will be thrown if the type of A is incompatible with the specified type. This type can be an object or any primitive data type. |

##### Others Operators

[ ] | type [ ] | Declares an array of unknown length, which contains type elements. |

type[ A ] |
Creates an array with A elements. Must be used with the new operator. | |

A[ B ] | Accesses the element at index B within array A. Indices begin at 0 and extend through the length of the array minus one. | |

+ | A+B | This binary operator concatenates one string to another. For example: – String str1 = “Welcome”; String str2 = “Codershelpline”; String str3 = str1 + str2 Output str3 = Welcome Codershelpline. |

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