There are following C-related terms are used below in the Terminology in C topics.

  • Expression
    • An expression is a sequence of operators and operands that does some specific manipulation.
    • It is a combination of variables, constants, and operators written according to the syntax of C language.
    • In C, every expression evaluates to a value.
    • There are three kinds of expressions: –
      • An arithmetic expression evaluates to a single arithmetic value.
      • A character expression evaluates to a single value of type character.
      • A logical or relational expression evaluates to a single logical value.
    • Operators, functions, constants, and variables are combined to form expressions.
  • Problem/Programming Solving Techniques (PST)
    • Problem-solving techniques are structured approaches used to address and resolve complex or challenging issues systematically so that they become easier and simpler.
    • Problem-solving in computer science is a systematic process of designing, implementing, and using programming tools to solve complex problems into simpler ones during the problem-solving stage. 
    • PST methodologies help users, individuals, or developer teams to break down problems, analyze their components, and develop effective solutions.
    • PST is completed in several steps, such as defining/identifying/understanding the problems first, Gathering related and relevant information, Defining the desired outcomes or goals to solve the problems, etc. In other words, the following six common steps must be followed to solve a problem using a computer –
      • Problem Analysis – This is the first step to analyze the problem and identify the requirements. 
      • Program Design – It requires tools for Program designing such as Algorithms, Flowchart, and Pseudocode
      • Coding – This step is used to write the code for the program.
      • Compilation and Execution –
      • Debugging and Testing
      • Program Documentation

Finally, these steps are essential for creating software/solving problems that satisfy end user’s requirements and needs. 

    • Types of Problems:
      • Common Software problems can vary widely in nature, ranging from minor glitches to critical malfunctions that affect the functionality of an application or system. Some common problems: –

        1. Bugs and Errors type of Problems :

        • Programming Bugs: These are coding mistakes or logic errors that cause unexpected behaviors or crashes in software.
        • Compile-Time Errors: These are errors detected during the compilation process due to syntax or semantic issues.
        • Runtime Errors: These are errors that occur during program execution due to invalid inputs or unexpected conditions.
        • Logical Errors:  These are flaws in the logic of the program leading to incorrect results or unexpected behavior.

        2. Performance Issues type of Problems :

        • Slow Performance: Applications or systems running sluggishly due to inefficient algorithms, resource overuse, or hardware constraints degrade the performance of the program.
        • Memory Leaks: Improper memory management causes memory consumption to increase over time, leading to performance degradation.

        3. Compatibility type of Problems:

        • Operating System Compatibility: Software not compatible with specific operating systems or versions leads to compatibility type of problems.
        • Hardware Compatibility: Issues arising from software not functioning well with certain hardware configurations or drivers.

        4. Security type of Problems:

        • Security Breaches: Weaknesses in software that can be exploited by attackers to gain unauthorized access or compromise data.
        • Vulnerabilities: Exploitable flaws in code that can lead to security breaches, such as buffer overflows or injection attacks.

        5. User Interface type of Problems:

        • Usability Problems: User interfaces that are confusing, non-intuitive, or difficult to navigate.
        • Visual or Functional Errors: Display issues, incorrect rendering, or unresponsive UI elements.

        6. Installation and Update type of Problems:

        • Installation Failures: Errors during software installation, leading to incomplete or failed installations.
        • Update Issues: Problems with updating software, including failed updates, compatibility issues, or corrupted updates.

        7. Integration and Interoperability type of Problems:

        • Integration Problems: Difficulties in integrating software components or modules.
        • Interoperability Issues: Incompatibility between different software systems, making data sharing or communication challenging.
  • Programming Error & its Types
    • There are three types of errors in programming: (I) Syntax/Parsing Errors (II) Runtime Errors /Exceptions and (III) Logical Errors.

(I) Syntax/Parsing/Static Errors :

        • Syntax errors occur at compile time in most high-level languages such as C, C++, etc, and at interpretation time in a few such as JavaScript.
        • This error is mainly related to program typing errors.

(II) Runtime Errors/Dynamic Errors/Exceptions :

        • Runtime errors occur during execution or run time (after successful compilation/interpretation) of the program.

(III) Logical Errors :

        • These errors are not related to syntax or runtime errors. Instead, this occurs when we make a mistake in the programming logic.
        • Logic errors are considered to be the most difficult type of errors to track down in a program.
        • We cannot detect these errors easily, because it depends on our business requirement what type of logic we want to put in our program.
  • ‘typedef’ statement
    • The typedef statement doesn’t occupy storage.
    • It simply defines a new type.
    • Variables that are declared with the typedef be of type struct country.
    • Example
                typedef struct student 
                      int rollno;
                      char stuname[20];
                      char course[20];
                      float coursefee; 
                  Stu x, y, z;

here ‘typedef’ defines a structure that can be referred to either as struct student or Stu, whichever we prefer/use. Here Stu can be used to define structure variables x,y, and z in place of struct student.

  • Command Line Argument 
    • The argument passed to the main() function while executing the program is known as a command line argument.
    • For example:
main(int count, char *args[])
source code  


Categories: C


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