(A) On the basis of operating system’s architecture, it is divided into               following categories –

(a) Network Operating System (b) Distributed Operating System (c)              Multiprocessor Operating System

(B) On the basis of use/application of operating system, it is divided               into following categories –

(a) Real time Operating System (b) Time Sharing Operating System (c)          Database Operating System (b) Multimedia Operating System

(C) On the basis of number of users, use the operating system at a time, it is         divided into following categories –

       (a) Single User Operating System (b) Multi User Operating System

(D) On the basis of task performing at a time, operating system is                     divided into following categories –

       (a) Unitasking Operating System (b) Multitasking Operating System

(E) On the basis of use of operating system in a computer network, it is         divided into following categories –

       (a) Client’s Operating System (b) Server Operating System

(F) On the basis of function performed by an operating system                         individually, it is divided into following categories –

       (a) General Purpose Operating System (b) Special Purpose Operating                     System

(A)

(a) Network Operating System

Definition

      • A network operating system is a collection of system software (OS) and associated/related protocols that allows a set of autonomous computers, which are interconnected by certain medium in a computer network, to be used together in a coordinated, convenient and cost-effective manner.

Features/Characteristics

      • This operating system works in a computer network environment.
      • Network operating systems focus on the use of remote services and resources existing in a network of computer systems.
      • In this operating system, there are multiple individual computers (usually called client computers) are connected with at least single or more remote/server machine with  a network medium either with air or cable.
      • Here, each client computer has its own same/different private operating system, memory, processor etc. along with a global remote system having powerful specific operating system.
      •  In this environment, each user normally works on his/her own client system.
      • In this environment, users are typically aware of where/ which system, each of their files are kept and must move
        file from one system to another with explicit file transfer commands with the help of remote machine.
      • The system/environment has little or no fault tolerance i.e. if 10% of the personal computers crash, only 10% of the users are out of business.

Advantages

      • In this environment, users can access the various resources of the network hosts.
      • It provides, controlling access  to the particular resources to authorize users.
      • The use of remote resources by the users, appear to be identical to the use of local resources.
      • It provides up-to-the minute network documentation on-line.

(b) Distributed Operating System

Definition

      • Distributed operating systems are operating systems for a network of autonomous computers connected by a communication network.

Features

      • A distributed operating system controls and manages the hardware and software resources of a distributed system such that its users view the entire system as a powerful monolithic computer system.
      • When a program is executed in a distributed system, the user is not aware of where the program is executed or of the location of the resources accessed.
      • Distributed operating systems focus on effective utilization of resources in distributed computing environments.
      • Users have unique id’s in a distributed system.
      • Distributed systems today cover a wide spectrum of computer hardware, software and topological configurations; resource sharing services range from off-line access to real time access and topologies vary from locally distributed to geographically distributed.

Structure

      • A distributed operating system consists of similar as a traditional operating system, viz., process synchronisation, deadlocks, process scheduling, file systems, interprocess communication, memory and buffer management, failure recovery, etc.
      • They lack both shared memory and a physical global clock, and unpredictable communication delays make the design of distributed operating systems much more difficult.

Advantages

      • Cost-effectiveness in both computations and resources.
      • Resource sharing
        • Resource sharing is the main motivation for distributed systems.
        • The nature of distribution and sharing of resources in a distributed system has changed due to advances in networking technology.
      • Reliability
        • Reliability is availability of a resource despite failures in a system. A distributed environment enhanced availability of resources through Operating System, redundancy of resources and communication paths. For example, availability of a disk resource can be increased by having two or more disks located at different sites in the system. If one disk is unavailable due to a disk or site failure, a program can use some
          other disk. The availability of a data resource, e.g., a file, can be similarly enhanced by keeping copies of the file at various sites in the system.
      • Communication
        • Communication between users at different locations is greatly facilitated using a distributed system easily. Communication continued even when users migrate to different sites of a system.
      • Incremental growth
        • Distributed systems are capable of incremental growth, i.e., It is the capabilities of a system (mainly its processing power) can be enhanced at a price proportional to the nature and size of the enhancement. 

(c) Multiprocessor Operating System

Definition

      • A typical multiprocessor system consists of a set of processors that share a set of physical memory blocks over an interconnection network.

Features

      • A user is not aware of the presence of multiple processors and their interconnection network in a multiprocessor system.

Structure

      • The design of a multiprocessor operating systems are same as in a traditional operating system. But process synchronization, task scheduling, memory management, and protection and security become more complex because the main memory is shared by many physical processors.

Function

      • A multiprocessor operating system controls and manages the hardware and software resources such that users view the entire systems as a powerful uni processor system.

Types

(B)

(a) Real Time Operating System

Definition

Features

(b) Time Sharing Operating System

Definition

Features

(c) Database Operating System

Definition

Features

(d) Multimedia Operating System

Definition

Features

(C)

(a) Single User Operating System

Definition

Features

(b) Multi User Operating System

Definition

Features

(D)

(a) Uni Tasking Operating System

Definition

Features

(b) Multitasking Operating System

Definition

Features

(c) Multiprogramming Operating System

Definition

Features

(E)

(a) Client’s Operating System

Definition

Features

(b) Server Operating System

Definition

Features

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