Data Link Layer

Introduction The data link layer constitutes the second layer of the hierarchical OSI Model. Features Data Link Layer performs their functions in LAN mainly. The Data Link layer together with physical layer provide a data link connection for reliable transfer of data bits over an imperfect physical connection, between two Read more…

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Physical Layer

Introduction The physical layer is the lowest layer of the OSI model. Features Functions This layer transmits/receives the unstructured raw bit stream over/from a physical medium such as cables. This layer describes the electrical/optical, mechanical and functional interfaces of the physical medium This layer carries the signals for all the Read more…

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Networking Devices

Introduction A typical network is consists of a larger number of the communication devices. To build a typical LAN, we need to have computers, hubs, switches, network adapters, NICs, repeaters, amplifiers, UTP/STP cables, bridges, routers, gateways, internal/external modems, different types of connectors, cable testers, clipping tools etc.  Definition Features Examples Read more…

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