Difference Between OSI and TCP/IP Reference Model

SlNo Similariteis
1. Both are used in Computer Network to achieve the same goal.
2. Both are logical model to handle data transmission in a computer network.
3. Both are divided into layers. 
1. OSI stands for ‘Open System Interconnection’. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
2. Invented by ISO(international standard organisation) in 1984. Invented by DOD(Department of defence) in 1970.
3. It has 7 layers namely – Application, Presentation, Session,  Transport, Network, Data Link and Physical layer. It has 4 layers namely – Application, Transport, Internet and Network Access Layer.
4. It decides how applications communicate over a network.It helps for understanding and designing the system architecture.It provides a framework for creating and implementing networking standards and devices.It is well documented and explains standards and protocols in more details.The main purpose of OSI Model was to guide vendors, manufacturer, and the developers so the digital communication products and software programs can inter operate, and facilitate a clear framework that describes the functions of networking or a telecommunication system. It is a communication protocol used to interconnect network devices on the internet. It decides how data is exchanged over the internet between source &  destination.
5. It is standard dominated model. It is protocol dominated model.
6. It is less reliable and comparatively less used.  It is more reliable and widely used. 
7. It supports both connection-oriented and connectionless communication in the network layer, but only connection-oreinted communication in Transport layer. It supports only connectionless communication in the Network layer but both connection-oriented and connectionless communication in the transport layer. 
8. It is standard interconnection protocol. It is transmission control protocol.
9. It uses strict layering hence its working procedure uses  vertical communication approaches (i.e. The higher layers of this model assembles data and send it down to the lower layers for it to be sent across the network. At the very lowest level, the data is sent over the network medium. On the receiving end, the process is reversed, with the data traveling back up to the higher layers on the receiving device). It uses loose layering hence its working procedure uses  horizontal communication approaches(i.e.works parallel on corresponding Layer on two/more system ).
10. In OSI, Transport layer guarantees delivery of packets. Transport layer does not guarantees delivery of packets.
11. OSI helps in guiding the network and acts as a reference tool. TCP/IP implements the functions which run the system.
12. OSI is independent of protocols and is generic. TCP/IP has standard rules followed by the data during the transmission.
13. OSI tries to fit in other models because it is a reference model. TCP/IP does not fit in any other model.
14. All the functions are clearly separated in the OSI model i.e. it distinguishes between service, interface and protocol. All the functions are not clearly separated in this model i.e. it does not distinguishes between service, interface and protocol.
15. It does not show transparency i.e. protocols are better hidden and can be replaced relatively easily as technology changes. It shows transparency i.e. protocols are not hidden and thus can’t be replaced easily as technology changes.
16. This model was devised before the corresponding protocols were designed. This model was devised after the corresponding protocols were designed i.e. the protocols came first and the model was a description of the existing protocols.



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