History of TCP/IP Reference Model

  • TCP/IP Reference Model was created in the 1970s by DARPA(Defense Advanced Research Project Agency), an agency of the United States Department of Defense. It laid the foundation for ARPANET(Advanced Research Project Agency Network), which was the world’s first wide area network and a predecessor of the Internet.



  • The TCP/IP Model is a popular specification for computer network protocols, that helps in controlling, coordinating, and regulating the proper functioning of a typical computer network by providing different types of protocols as needed by its different layers. 


Layers of TCP/IP Model

  • TCP/IP is typically divided into four layers (from bottom to top) –
    • Network Interface Layer (Layer 1)
    • Internet Layer (Layer 2)
    • Transport Layer (Layer 3)
    • Application Layer (Layer 4)



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